Happiness and Values

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The relation between values and happiness is controversial. Relativists claim that people will be happy as long as their life is consistent with their values, independent of the nature of their values. Humanists claim that some values are more fundamental and important for all individuals (e.g., Maslow's need hierarchy). To the extent that people's value preferences deviate from those consistent with human nature, they are likely pursue goals that do not lead to happiness, making them less happy.  
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The relation between values and happiness is somewhat controversial. Relativists claim that people will be happy as long as their life is consistent with their values, independent of the nature of their values. Humanists claim that some values are more fundamental and important for all individuals (e.g., Maslow's need hierarchy). To the extent that people's value preferences deviate from those consistent with human nature, they are likely pursue goals that undermine happiness or well-being.  
Empirical Evidence
Empirical Evidence
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An early review by Veenhoven (1984) found very weak correlations between value preferences and happiness. He also noted that this finding "caused much surprise" (p. 323)
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An early review by [[Veenhoven (1984)]] found very weak correlations between value preferences and happiness. He noted that this finding "caused much surprise" (p. 323)
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In contrast, a more widely cited cross-sectional study concluded that materialistic values are negatively correlated with happiness (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Of course, a cross-sectional study cannot prove causality. Thus, it is not clear that material value preferences caused lower happiness in this study. It is equally possible, that a common third variable (e.g., poverty) caused lower happiness and a more materialistic value orientation. Another problem of this study was the use of questionable indicators of happiness (e.g., vitality).
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In contrast, numerous cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that materialistic values are negatively correlated with happiness and other well-being variables (see [[Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002]], for a review). But of course, these cross-sectional, correlational studies can not demonstrate that holding materialistic values causes lower well-being. More recent longitudinal studies, however, have been helpful in suggesting that materialistic values and goals predict decreases in well-being over time.
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A more recent study examined the relation between materialism (importance of financial success) and happiness longitudinally in a large sample of US students (Nickerson, Schwartz, Diener, & Kahneman, 2003). This study found a very weak negative relation between materialism and life satisfaction after controlling for several other variables (r = .04). Furthermore, the effect was moderated by actual financial success. Valuing money had virtually no negative effects on the happiness of people who were actually financially succesful. In contrast, it had a larger effect on the happiness of individuals with low income. This finding is more consistent with the relativistic view of happiness that the influence of values on happiness depends on one's actual life cirumstances.  
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For example, in a year-long study of recent college graduates, [[Sheldon, Ryan, Deci and Kasser (2004)]] found that graduates' endorsement of goals that they believed would help them become rich predicted decreased happiness over the course of a year. Sheldon and his colleagues concluded that inancial success goals seem to undermine happiness regardless of a person's reasons for wanting to be rich.  
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Conclusion
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An additional longitudinal study found a small negative relationship between materialism and life satisfaction in a large sample of college graduates ([[Nickerson, Schwartz, Diener, & Kahneman, 2003]]). The result was present even after several other variables were controlled. However, the negative relationship between materialism and happiness was moderated by actual financial success. Although most income groups had a negative relationship between materialism and life satisfaction, materialism and life satisfaction were unrelated among people who had incomes that were much higher than average.
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Human nature is not universal. People differ in their value preferences and are likely to pursue different goals in their lives. Happiness depends on the achievement of these goals rather than on the nature of these goals.  
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In summary, in most cases happiness seems to be more strongly related to whether or not people are fulfilling their values rather than the actual nature of their values. However, there are exceptions. Materialistic values, for example, seem to be toxic to the well-being of many people.  
References
References
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Kasser T. & Ryan, R.M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. �Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410-422.
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[[Burroughs, J. & Rindfleisch, A. (2002)]]. Materialism and well-being: A conflicting values perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 29, 348-370.
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Nickerson, C., Schwarz, N., Diener, E., & Kahneman, D. (2003). Zeroing on the dark side of the American Dream: A closer look at the negative consequences of the goal for financial success. Psychological Science, 14(6), 531-536.
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[[Nickerson, C., Schwarz, N., Diener, E., & Kahneman, D. (2003)]]. Zeroing on the dark side of the American Dream: A closer look at the negative consequences of the goal for financial success. Psychological Science, 14(6), 531-536.
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Veenhoven, R. (1984). Conditions of happiness. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. [excellent book on happiness]
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[[Veenhoven, R. (1984)]]. Conditions of happiness. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. [excellent book on happiness]

Latest revision as of 19:55, 10 May 2007

The relation between values and happiness is somewhat controversial. Relativists claim that people will be happy as long as their life is consistent with their values, independent of the nature of their values. Humanists claim that some values are more fundamental and important for all individuals (e.g., Maslow's need hierarchy). To the extent that people's value preferences deviate from those consistent with human nature, they are likely pursue goals that undermine happiness or well-being.

Empirical Evidence An early review by (Veenhoven 1984) found very weak correlations between value preferences and happiness. He noted that this finding "caused much surprise" (p. 323)

In contrast, numerous cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that materialistic values are negatively correlated with happiness and other well-being variables (see (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002), for a review). But of course, these cross-sectional, correlational studies can not demonstrate that holding materialistic values causes lower well-being. More recent longitudinal studies, however, have been helpful in suggesting that materialistic values and goals predict decreases in well-being over time.

For example, in a year-long study of recent college graduates, (Sheldon, Ryan, Deci and Kasser 2004) found that graduates' endorsement of goals that they believed would help them become rich predicted decreased happiness over the course of a year. Sheldon and his colleagues concluded that inancial success goals seem to undermine happiness regardless of a person's reasons for wanting to be rich.

An additional longitudinal study found a small negative relationship between materialism and life satisfaction in a large sample of college graduates ((Nickerson, Schwartz, Diener, & Kahneman, 2003)). The result was present even after several other variables were controlled. However, the negative relationship between materialism and happiness was moderated by actual financial success. Although most income groups had a negative relationship between materialism and life satisfaction, materialism and life satisfaction were unrelated among people who had incomes that were much higher than average.

In summary, in most cases happiness seems to be more strongly related to whether or not people are fulfilling their values rather than the actual nature of their values. However, there are exceptions. Materialistic values, for example, seem to be toxic to the well-being of many people.

References

(Burroughs, J. & Rindfleisch, A. 2002). Materialism and well-being: A conflicting values perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 29, 348-370.

(Nickerson, C., Schwarz, N., Diener, E., & Kahneman, D. 2003). Zeroing on the dark side of the American Dream: A closer look at the negative consequences of the goal for financial success. Psychological Science, 14(6), 531-536.

(Veenhoven, R. 1984). Conditions of happiness. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. [excellent book on happiness]

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