Conceptions of Justice/Fairness Scale
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This page is for interested and knowledgable psychology researchers to brainstorm on how to create an individual difference measure that allows us to study what people believe is fair and just. Feel free to edit things, though not all edits will be accepted or put into the final scale.
There is a discussion page here for interested parties to talk about items as well. Opportunities for credit/authorship abound! The goal is to develop a scale that we'll eventually collect data on using yourmorals.org and perhaps using a sample near you.
Factors/Concepts of Fairness/Justice
I'm not a "justice researcher" (Ravi), so I may miss something, but looking at items and articles, I've identified 4 possible factors, which could also be heirarchically represented as follows...
1)Procedural Justice - "how should we decide who gets what" [Major cites/theorists: Tom Tyler]
2) Distributive Justice - "who should get what" Major cites/theorists: William Damon....]
3) Equality - "everyone should get the same amount" [Major cites/theorists: ?]
4) Equity - "people who contribute more should get more" [Major cites/theorists: Walster, equity theory.] This includes variations in effort ("contributions are defined by putting in more work") and Ability/Product ("contributions are defined by ability/objective worth of end product")
-- Need - "people who need more should get more" [Jon thinks this must be cut; need draws on the harm/care foundation. it is a very artificial extension of fairness to say that it is only "fair" to give people what they need]
For extended discussions of the many conflicting versions of fairness, see: --Alan Fiske, 1991, on how the "Equality Matching" model is implemented --Walter, Walster, and Berscheid, on equity theory --William Damon on the development of various forms of fairness
Possible other candidates:
- Punishment Orientation/Retributive Justice? - Is this just a form of negative Equity? Or are positive Equity (getting rewarded for doing good) and negative Equity (getting punished for doing bad) subject to individual difference measures? Perhaps the Harm foundation interacts with these appraisals? Perhaps we should measure this and see what the statistics reveal...
So given these constructs, I feel like the next step is to look at existing measures and see which constructs are represented.
Here we can look at existing scales and comment on which factors items might load on....in addition to those factors from the above section, items might be open to interpretation and load on the general "fairness/justice" idea that a person has in their head at that time. So a person who believes in equality will actually be answering a different question than someone who believes in equity when asked "is this fair?".
Moral Foundations Questionnaire
This is the Haidt/Graham measure that is available at yourmorals.org and.. http://cbdr.cmu.edu/seminar/Haidt.pdf
Procedural Justice If we are to fight crime effectively, some people's rights will have to be violated.
General Justice, fairness and equality are the most important requirements for a society.
Procedural Justice When the government makes laws, the number one principle should be ensuring that everyone is treated fairly.
Equity vs. Equality I think it's morally wrong that rich children inherit a lot of money while poor children inherit nothing.
Procedural Justice Whether or not someone was denied his or her rights
General Whether or not someone acted unfairly
Equality, and/or procedural Whether or not some people were treated differently than others
Procedural Justice, and equality Whether or not someone tried to control or dominate someone else
Preference for the Merit Principle Scale
This scale is by (Davey, Bobocel, San Hing, Zanna 1999).
Equality, neg equity - In work organizations, each employee ought to be named employee of the month at least once, even if he or she is not deserving. (R)
Equity (ability + effort) - In organizations, people who do their job well ought to rise to the top.
Procedural Justice - It is wrong for an employee to give a job to someone they know without advertising the job to other candidates.
General Fairness (ambiguous) - In life, people ought to get what they deserve.
Equity (effort) - The effort a worker puts into a job ought to be reflected in the size of a raise he or she receives.
Equality - When students are working on a group project, each member of the group ought to receive the same grade regardless of the amount of effort each team member puts in. (R)
Equity (effort) - Promotion decisions ought to take into account the effort workers put into their job.
Equity (effort + ability), Equality - Members of a work team ought to receive different pay depending on the amount each person contributed.
Need - Sometimes it is appropriate to give a raise to the worker who most needs it, even if he or she is not the most hard working. (R)
Equity (ability) - Qualifications ought to be given more weight than seniority when making promotion decisions.
Equity (effort) - Between two equally smart students applying for the same job, the one who is the harder worker ought to always get the job.
Equality - When a bonus is given to a work team for good performance, the money ought to always be divided equally among the group members. (R)
Need (Rev) - It is never appropriate to choose which student to hire by how much the student needs the job.
Equity (ability/product) (Rev) - People ought to be able to get away with poor quality work under some circumstances. (R)
Equity (effort) - If every person in an office has the same abilities, the promotion ought to always be given to the person who puts in the most effort.
Experiment in The Justice Motive
From The Justice Motive In Adolescence And Young Adulthood: Origins and Consequences By Claudia Dalbert, Hedvig Sallay
They gave students a short vignette about students who received the same number of points in a dictation in their native language and asked whether...
Equality Both should receive the same grade.
Need The student who needs a better grade to move up to the next year should receive a better grade.
Equity The student who made more of an effort should receive the better grade.
The Uber Justice/Fairness Scale
This section is for us to figure out what would be the best scale to figure out these factors of justice/fairness using a combination of existing and new scale items. There may be more factors as this document evolves...feel free to add your own candidate questions/factors here...
- If we are to fight crime effectively, some people's rights will have to be violated. (R)
- It is wrong for an employee to give a job to someone they know without advertising the job to other candidates.
- It is wrong for someone to try to control or dominate someone else.
- It is wrong for a decision to be made without the input of all affected parties.
Distributive Justice - Equality
- It is morally wrong that rich children inherit a lot of money while poor children inherit nothing.
- When a bonus is given to a work team for good performance, the money ought to always be divided equally among the group members.
- When students are working on a group project, each member of the group ought to receive the same grade.
- In work organizations, each employee ought to be named employee of the month at least once.
- It is sometimes acceptable that some people are treated differently than others. (R)
Distributive Justice - Need
- Sometimes it is appropriate to give a raise to the worker who most needs it, even if he or she is not the most hard working.
- It is sometimes ok for students who need a better grade to receive a better grade.
- It is never appropriate to choose which student to hire by how much the student needs the job.
- It is morally acceptable that some people do not have their basic needs met. (R)
Distributive Justice - Equity - Effort
- The effort a worker puts into a job ought to be reflected in the size of a raise he or she receives.
- A student who makes more of an effort should receive a better grade.
- Promotions ought to be given to people who put in the most effort.
Distributive Justice - Equity - Ability/Production
- Qualifications ought to be given more weight than seniority when making promotion decisions.
- People ought to be able to get away with poor quality work under some circumstances. (R)
- People who contribute more should benefit more.
Retributive Justice - Punishment Orientation
Need items measuring one's endorsement of punishing people for doing things that are morally wrong.
Just to be clear and provide incentives to participate....
While I (Ravi) don't know where this project will lead, so I can't guarantee this, my goal is to have this project be a large collaboration with liberal credit awarded. If you contribute significantly to this page and it ends up in my control, I'll at least add your contribution as a footnote. If you can do data analysis, contribute a lot to the scale design, collect a sample, or help write the eventual paper, then there is likely an opportunity to be an author as long as you don't mind being on a paper with lots of others.
Misc Stuff that may spur thought or hasn't been classified
Fiske's Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing
"People use just four fundamental models for organizing most aspects of sociality most of the time in all cultures . These models are Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing.
Communal Sharing (CS) is a relationship in which people treat some dyad or group as equivalent and undifferentiated with respect to the social domain in question. Examples are people using a commons (CS with respect to utilization of the particular resource), people intensely in love (CS with respect to their social selves), people who "ask not for whom the bell tolls, for it tolls for thee" (CS with respect to shared suffering and common well-being), or people who kill any member of an enemy group indiscriminately in retaliation for an attack (CS with respect to collective responsibility).
In Authority Ranking (AR) people have asymmetric positions in a linear hierarchy in which subordinates defer, respect, and (perhaps) obey, while superiors take precedence and take pastoral responsibility for subordinates. Examples are military hierarchies (AR in decisions, control, and many other matters), ancestor worship (AR in offerings of filial piety and expectations of protection and enforcement of norms), monotheistic religious moralities (AR for the definition of right and wrong by commandments or will of God), social status systems such as class or ethnic rankings (AR with respect to social value of identities), and rankings such as sports team standings (AR with respect to prestige). AR relationships are based on perceptions of legitimate asymmetries, not coercive power; they are not inherently exploitative (although they may involve power or cause harm).
In Equality Matching relationships people keep track of the balance or difference among participants and know what would be required to restore balance. Common manifestations are turn-taking, one-person one-vote elections, equal share distributions, and vengeance based on an-eye-for-an-eye, a-tooth-for-a-tooth. Examples include sports and games (EM with respect to the rules, procedures, equipment and terrain), baby-sitting coops (EM with respect to the exchange of child care), and restitution in-kind (EM with respect to righting a wrong).
Market Pricing relationships are oriented to socially meaningful ratios or rates such as prices, wages, interest, rents, tithes, or cost-benefit analyses. Money need not be the medium, and MP relationships need not be selfish, competitive, maximizing, or materialistic - any of the four models may exhibit any of these features. MP relationships are not necessarily individualistic; a family may be the CS or AR unit running a business that operates in an MP mode with respect to other enterprises. Examples are property that can be bought, sold, or treated as investment capital (land or objects as MP), marriages organized contractually or implicitly in terms of costs and benefits to the partners, prostitution (sex as MP), bureaucratic cost-effectiveness standards (resource allocation as MP), utilitarian judgments about the greatest good for the greatest number, or standards of equity in judging entitlements in proportion to contributions (two forms of morality as MP), considerations of "spending time" efficiently, and estimates of expected kill ratios (aggression as MP). "